Python爬虫 带你一键爬取王者荣耀英雄皮肤壁纸

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原文链接:https://yetingyun.blog.csdn.net/article/details/108901159
创作不易,未经作者允许,禁止转载,更勿做其他用途,违者必究。

一、前言

王者荣耀这款手游,想必大家都玩过或听过,游戏里英雄有各式各样的皮肤,制作得很精美,有些拿来做电脑壁纸它不香吗。本文带你利用Python爬虫一键下载王者荣耀英雄皮肤壁纸。

1. 目标

创建一个文件夹, 里面又有按英雄名称分的子文件夹保存该英雄的所有皮肤图片

URL:https://pvp.qq.com/web201605/herolist.shtml

2. 环境

运行环境:Pycharm、Python3.7

需要的库

import requests
import os
import json
from lxml import etree
from fake_useragent import UserAgent
import logging

二、分析网页

首先打开王者荣耀官网,点击英雄资料进去。

进入新的页面后,任意选择一个英雄,检查网页。

多选择几个英雄检查网页,可以发现各个英雄页面的URL规律

https://pvp.qq.com/web201605/herodetail/152.shtml
https://pvp.qq.com/web201605/herodetail/150.shtml
https://pvp.qq.com/web201605/herodetail/167.shtml

发现只有末尾的数字在变化,末尾的数字可以认为是该英雄的页面标识。

点击Network,Crtl + R 刷新,可以找到一个 herolist.json 文件。

发现是乱码,但问题不大,双击这个 json 文件,将它下载下来观察,用编辑器打开可以看到。

ename是英雄网址页面的标识;而 cname 是对应英雄的名称;skin_name为对应皮肤的名称。

任选一个英雄页面进去,检查该英雄下面所有皮肤,观察url变化规律。

url变化规律如下:
https://game.gtimg.cn/images/yxzj/img201606/heroimg/152/152-bigskin-1.jpg
https://game.gtimg.cn/images/yxzj/img201606/heroimg/152/152-bigskin-2.jpg
https://game.gtimg.cn/images/yxzj/img201606/heroimg/152/152-bigskin-3.jpg
https://game.gtimg.cn/images/yxzj/img201606/heroimg/152/152-bigskin-4.jpg
https://game.gtimg.cn/images/yxzj/img201606/heroimg/152/152-bigskin-5.jpg

复制图片链接到浏览器打开,可以看到高清大图。

观察到同一个英雄的皮肤图片 url 末尾 -{x}.jpg 从 1 开始依次递增,再来看看不同英雄的皮肤图片 url 是如何构造的。会发现, ename这个英雄的标识不一样,获取到的图片就不一样,由 ename 参数决定。

https://game.gtimg.cn/images/yxzj/img201606/heroimg/152/152-bigskin-1.jpg
https://game.gtimg.cn/images/yxzj/img201606/heroimg/150/150-bigskin-1.jpg
https://game.gtimg.cn/images/yxzj/img201606/heroimg/153/153-bigskin-1.jpg
# 可构造图片请求链接如下
https://game.gtimg.cn/images/yxzj/img201606/heroimg/{ename}/{ename}-bigskin-{x}.jpg

三、爬虫代码实现

# -*- coding: UTF-8 -*-
"""
@File    :王者荣耀英雄皮肤壁纸.py
@Author  :叶庭云
@Date    :2020/10/2 11:40
@CSDN    :https://blog.csdn.net/fyfugoyfa
"""
import requests
import os
import json
from lxml import etree
from fake_useragent import UserAgent
import logging

# 日志输出的基本配置
logging.basicConfig(level=logging.INFO, format='%(asctime)s - %(levelname)s: %(message)s')


class glory_of_king(object):
    def __init__(self):
        if not os.path.exists("./王者荣耀皮肤"):
            os.mkdir("王者荣耀皮肤")
        # 利用fake_useragent产生随机UserAgent  防止被反爬
        ua = UserAgent(verify_ssl=False, path='fake_useragent.json')
        for i in range(1, 50):
            self.headers = {
                'User-Agent': ua.random
            }

    def scrape_skin(self):
        # 发送请求   获取响应
        response = requests.get('https://pvp.qq.com/web201605/js/herolist.json', headers=self.headers)
        # str转为json
        data = json.loads(response.text)
        # for循环遍历data获取需要的字段  创建对应英雄名称的文件夹
        for i in data:
            hero_number = i['ename']    # 获取英雄名字编号
            hero_name = i['cname']      # 获取英雄名字
            os.mkdir("./王者荣耀皮肤/{}".format(hero_name))  # 创建英雄名称对应的文件夹
            response_src = requests.get("https://pvp.qq.com/web201605/herodetail/{}.shtml".format(hero_number),
                                        headers=self.headers)
            hero_content = response_src.content.decode('gbk')  # 返回相应的html页面 解码为gbk
            # xpath解析对象  提取每个英雄的皮肤名字
            hero_data = etree.HTML(hero_content)
            hero_img = hero_data.xpath('//div[@class="pic-pf"]/ul/@data-imgname')
            # 去掉每个皮肤名字中间的分隔符
            hero_src = hero_img[0].split('|')
            logging.info(hero_src)
            # 遍历英雄src处理图片名称。
            for j in range(len(hero_src)):
                # 去掉皮肤名字的&符号
                index_ = hero_src[j].find("&")
                skin_name = hero_src[j][:index_]
                # 请求下载图片
                response_skin = requests.get(
                    "https://game.gtimg.cn/images/yxzj/img201606/skin/hero-info/{}/{}-bigskin-{}.jpg".format(
                        hero_number, hero_number, j + 1))
                # 获取图片二进制数据        
                skin_img = response_skin.content  
                # 把皮肤图片保存到对应名字的文件里
                with open("./王者荣耀皮肤/{}/{}.jpg".format(hero_name, skin_name), "wb")as f:
                    f.write(skin_img)
                    logging.info(f"{skin_name}.jpg 下载成功!!")

    def run(self):
        self.scrape_skin()


if __name__ == '__main__':
    spider = glory_of_king()
    spider.run()

运行效果如下:

程序运行一段时间,英雄皮肤壁纸就都保存在本地文件夹啦,结果如下:

四、其他说明

  • 不建议抓取太多数据,容易对服务器造成负载,浅尝辄止即可。
  • 通过本文爬虫,可以帮助你了解 json 数据的解析和提取需要的数据,如何通过字符串的拼接来构造URL请求。
  • 本文利用 Python 爬虫一键下载王者荣耀英雄皮肤壁纸,实现过程中也会遇到一些问题,多思考和调试,最终解决问题,也能理解得更深刻。
  • 代码可直接复制运行,如果觉得还不错,记得给个赞哦,也是对作者最大的鼓励,不足之处可以在评论区多多指正。

解决报错:fake_useragent.errors.FakeUserAgentError: Maximum amount of retries reached

# 报错如下
Error occurred during loading data. Trying to use cache server https://fake-useragent.herokuapp.com/browsers/0.1.11
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/usr/local/python3/lib/python3.6/urllib/request.py", line 1318, in do_open
    encode_chunked=req.has_header('Transfer-encoding'))
  File "/usr/local/python3/lib/python3.6/http/client.py", line 1239, in request
    self._send_request(method, url, body, headers, encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/local/python3/lib/python3.6/http/client.py", line 1285, in _send_request
    self.endheaders(body, encode_chunked=encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/local/python3/lib/python3.6/http/client.py", line 1234, in endheaders
    self._send_output(message_body, encode_chunked=encode_chunked)
  File "/usr/local/python3/lib/python3.6/http/client.py", line 1026, in _send_output
    self.send(msg)
  File "/usr/local/python3/lib/python3.6/http/client.py", line 964, in send
    self.connect()
  File "/usr/local/python3/lib/python3.6/http/client.py", line 1392, in connect
    super().connect()
  File "/usr/local/python3/lib/python3.6/http/client.py", line 936, in connect
    (self.host,self.port), self.timeout, self.source_address)
  File "/usr/local/python3/lib/python3.6/socket.py", line 724, in create_connection
    raise err
  File "/usr/local/python3/lib/python3.6/socket.py", line 713, in create_connection
    sock.connect(sa)
socket.timeout: timed out
 
During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:
 
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/usr/local/python3/lib/python3.6/site-packages/fake_useragent/utils.py", line 67, in get
    context=context,
  File "/usr/local/python3/lib/python3.6/urllib/request.py", line 223, in urlopen
    return opener.open(url, data, timeout)
  File "/usr/local/python3/lib/python3.6/urllib/request.py", line 526, in open
    response = self._open(req, data)
  File "/usr/local/python3/lib/python3.6/urllib/request.py", line 544, in _open
    '_open', req)
  File "/usr/local/python3/lib/python3.6/urllib/request.py", line 504, in _call_chain
    result = func(*args)
  File "/usr/local/python3/lib/python3.6/urllib/request.py", line 1361, in https_open
    context=self._context, check_hostname=self._check_hostname)
  File "/usr/local/python3/lib/python3.6/urllib/request.py", line 1320, in do_open
    raise URLError(err)
urllib.error.URLError: <urlopen error timed out>
 
During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:
 
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/usr/local/python3/lib/python3.6/site-packages/fake_useragent/utils.py", line 154, in load
    for item in get_browsers(verify_ssl=verify_ssl):
  File "/usr/local/python3/lib/python3.6/site-packages/fake_useragent/utils.py", line 97, in get_browsers
    html = get(settings.BROWSERS_STATS_PAGE, verify_ssl=verify_ssl)
  File "/usr/local/python3/lib/python3.6/site-packages/fake_useragent/utils.py", line 84, in get
    raise FakeUserAgentError('Maximum amount of retries reached')
fake_useragent.errors.FakeUserAgentError: Maximum amount of retries reached

解决方法如下:

# 将https://fake-useragent.herokuapp.com/browsers/0.1.11里内容复制 并另存为本地json文件:fake_useragent.json
# 引用
ua = UserAgent(verify_ssl=False, path='fake_useragent.json')
print(ua.random)

运行结果如下:
Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.2; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/27.0.1500.55 Safari/537.36

作者:叶庭云
CSDN:https://blog.csdn.net/fyfugoyfa
本文仅用于交流学习,未经作者允许,禁止转载,更勿做其他用途,违者必究。
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